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LED模组技术在设计和性能上的新进展

2017/12/8 14:45:13

摘要:

LED sign module technology has evolved significantly over the years, both in performance and design. Manufacturers have introduced innovative evolutionary improvements that have resulted in a truly better mousetrap when compared to LED modules that were available several years ago. What are some of these more recent changes, additions, improvements, and features? Let’s start by looking at the mechanical design features made to aid with installation and identification.


近几年来,LED模组技术有着显着的发展,这归于标识制造商引入了创新的技术,与几年前的LED模组技术相比,在设计和性能上都出现了明显的进展。那么,这些最新改进的功能有哪些呢?我们首先来看看,为了安装和识别而设计的机械设计特征。


Mechanical Design Features


机械设计特征
Channel letter modules regularly have both a screw hole for mechanical connection and peel-and-stick high-bond double-sided foam tape feature. The reliability of the double-sided foam tapes have improved over the years, but is still often not recommended as the only means of fastening the module to the channel letter body. While the glue used in these tapes may be extremely strong and resistant to elemental changes, the substrates to which the tapes adhere can be suspect and inconsistently cleaned and prepared.


用于槽型发光字的LED模组有一个螺钉孔,它既用于连接机械,又用于剥离和粘贴高粘度双面泡沫带。很多年来,双面泡沫带在可靠性方面有所提高,但仍然不被推荐作为将模组固定到发光字主体部位的工具。虽然这些胶带中使用的胶水非常强,并且能够抵抗元素的变化,但是这些胶带所附着的基材容易受到外界的影响,而且不容易清洗。

Thus, many manufacturers recommend or require that modules mount to channel letter backs using additional mechanical means of attachment. I’m sure there are sign makers who have experienced the frustration of trying to use the double-sided foam tape feature on the back of a module, only to find it difficult, time consuming, and tedious to peel off the release liner. Related complaints have been heard and now you’ll see some module manufacturers provide LED sign modules with an extra length of the release liner on the double-sided foam tape creating an effective tab to grab and peel, saving time and reducing frustration.


因此,许多标识制造商要求模组要先使用附加的机械附件方式,再安装到发光字中。在此过程中,有一些标识制造商在模组背面使用双面泡沫胶带时遇到了一些麻烦,他们发现剥离衬垫的难度非常耗时,所以现在,你会看到一些标识制造商所提供的LED模组中,在双面泡沫胶带上有一个额外的释放衬垫的长度,这样方便了剥离,也节省了时间。


Mounting an LED sign module to the back of a channel letter or to the back of a single-sided cabinet sign using the provided screw hole is pretty straight forward. The hole can be just about anywhere on a small or short module. When you get into larger or longer modules, the location of the hole become more important. Longer modules really need the hole to be located near the middle of the module or may even require two holes, one on each end, in order to securely mount the module flat to its mounting surface.


使用螺丝孔将LED模组安装在发光字的背面或单面灯箱的背面是非常简单的。 螺丝孔可以部署在小或短的模组上,也可以部署在长而大的模组上,但是,部署在更大或更长的模组上时,螺丝孔的位置要放置的非常精确,需要放置在模组中心或离中心较近的位置,有时甚至需要两个孔,每个端部放置一个,以便将模组牢固地安装在标识表面。

Mounting of LED sign modules made specifically for double-face cabinets can be a little trickier. A variety of designs have surfaced that minimize use of tools and tedious hand labor to install double-face sign modules. These include:


专门为双面灯箱制造的LED模组在安装上可能会有点棘手。针对这种安装的设计,他们通过使用一些工具安装双面灯箱。这些设计包括:


LED sticks made in lengths equivalent to a fluorescent HO lamp and that retrofit into existing fluorescent sockets


将LED灯条的长度改为和荧光灯一样,并将插座也改装成荧光设置


Lattice-style of LED modules that can be hung from the top of a cabinet
LED模组可以悬挂在灯箱的顶部


LED modules with tool-less click and play mounting accessories.


LED模组具有无工具点击和安装附件


Each has its own unique benefits, and they all are designed to minimize installation time and labor required for installing LED modules in cabinet signs.


当然,每个产品都有自己独特的优势,它们都可以减少将LED模组安装在灯箱中所需的时间和人力。


Other Design Features


其他的设计特点


Protection of an enclosure against ingress of dirt or water, according to the International Electrotechnical Commission codes, is defined in IEC 529. LED sign modules designed for outdoor or potentially wet locations often have IP (Ingress Protection) code ratings of IP 66, IP 67, or IP 68. The first digit in these examples being a “6” means the enclosure is dust proof. The second digit deals with water ingress where a “6” means limited ingress from high pressure hose down, a “7” means handles temporary underwater immersion up to one meter deep, and an “8” means permanent high pressure immersion. Either IP 66, IP 67, or IP 68 are generally good for a vast majority of outdoor wet location environments and are readily available.


根据国际电工委员会的规定,为了防止污垢或水进入防护罩,他们专门设计了用于室外或潮湿位置的LED模组,这类模组通常具有IP 66、IP 67 、IP68的防护等级,第一个数字为“6”,表示模组外壳是防尘的;第二位数字涉及水的进入程度,其中,“6”意味着高压水管的有限值,“7”意味着水下深度浸入深达一米,“8”意味着永久性高压浸入值。IP 66、IP 67、IP 68通常适用于绝大多数户外潮湿的环境,并且随时可用。


Internal thermal management, or the ability of the design of the sign module to remove heat from the discrete LED chip, helps keep the LED cool, aiding in life performance and/or allowing for higher ambient temperature applications of the sign module.


内部热管理或LED模组需要从芯片中去除热量,这样有助于保持LED的冷却,同时有助于寿命性能的增加,使模组在更高环境的温度中更好的应用。
Material selections are also important in product

design. For example, heat and/or UV light from the sun can degrade materials causing them to change color and possibly accelerate LED module color shift and lumen depreciation over time. The choice of UV stable materials is, therefore, and important part of the development process in quality sign modules.


材料的选择在产品设计中也很重要。例如,来自太阳的热量和紫外线可以降解材料,导致变色,并且可能会随着时间来加速LED模组的颜色偏移和流明耗损。因此,高质量材料的选择是模组开发过程中的重要组成部分。

 

LED Module Identification


LED模组的识别功能


Similar models of sign modules from one manufacturer can be sometimes easy to mix up. As a result, module manufacturers include written descriptors on the face or side of the module body. These descriptors may include markings indicating some of the following:


值得注意的是,来自同一家标识制造商相似型号的模组有时很容易混淆,因此,标识制造商在模组主体的正面或侧面应该标注书面描述。这些描述包括以下方面:


Brand
标签
Part Description
部分功能
Wattage
功率
Color Temperature
色温
Color
颜色
Voltage
电压
Binning Codes
像素
Production Date Codes, Etc.
生产日期,等等。


Additionally, to quickly identify a monochrome colored LED module, the module itself may incorporate some color marking feature such as those shown in the example photos below.


此外,为了能快速识别单色或彩色LED模组,可以增添一些带颜色的标记功能。


Improvements to Discrete LEDs


透镜的光源反射


The individual discrete LEDs used inside sign modules have continued to improve as well. That’s not to say that all LEDs are good because there are major differences. Some of the attributes that should be considered when engineers are choosing the right LED for sign modules include things such as:


在标识制作中,使用的各个离散LED也在不断改进,这意味着并不是所有的LED都是完整的,因为它们之间有很大的差异。专业人士在为标识选择合适的LED模组时,应该考虑一下属性:


Thermal Resistance
耐热性
Efficacy (lumens per watt)
功效
Color Over Angle
不同角度呈现出的颜色
Color Consistency (from tighter binning)
颜色的一致性
LED Durability and Lifespan
LED的使用寿命
Lumen Maintenance.
流明的维护


As the efficacy of LEDs improve, the wattage is reduced for like lumen packages. Decreasing the wattage can improve energy efficiency and payback. It also reduces the thermal load in the sign module which will provide more stable performance over life. 
随着LED效能的提高,对类似流明封装的功率进行了降低。降低功率可以提高能源效率,还可以降低模组的热负荷,从而在整个寿命期间提供更稳定的性能。


Electrical Designs


电压设计


LED boards, modules, or light engines are generally either a constant voltage or constant current design.


LED模组或轻型发动机通常使用的是恒定电压或恒流设计。


Constant voltage designs require a specific input voltage to the module from its power source. Although constant voltage designs tend to be inherently a little less efficient, they have the advantage of only being limited to the voltage drop across a long length of multiple modules in a chain and the loading of the power supply. Thus, one can run varying lengths of multi-module chains of sign modules, ideal for a sign maker cutting off ever varying module counts for different channel letters or cabinets. In constant voltage designs, a sign module with good design circuitry within the module converts the constant voltage to constant current at the LED level and includes current regulation circuitry in the module that yields consistent brightness from each of the modules operating on a power supply, regardless of whether there are only a few or there are many modules on that power supply.


恒定电压的设计要求模组的输入电压来自电源,虽然恒定电压本身的效率较低,但只限于在一个链条中,进行多个模组的电压和电源的负载。因此,它可以运行不同长度的多个模组链,标识制造商可根据变化的模组来设计不同的发光字或灯箱。此外,在恒压设计中,模组内的电路设计是将恒压转换为LED的恒流,并在模组中进行电路的调节,使在电源上运行的每个模组产生一致的亮度。


The designs that are truly constant current designs may be a bit more efficient, but there are significant limitations and restrictions on the quantity of modules one can operate on a constant current power supply and still have consistent brightness between the groupings of modules in a cabinet or channel letter.


相比之下,恒定电流设计的效率更高一些,但是在恒定电流上可操作模组的数量有很大的限制,即使这样,安装在灯箱中的模组仍然具有一致的亮度。


 Improved Sign Module Optics


改进LED模组的光学元件


It is arguable to say that the design features having the biggest recent impact on LED acceptance and performance in channel letters and cabinets has been related to optics. Early module designs had no optical beam shaping lens over the LEDs. The output of the LEDs was most commonly a 120° Lambertian distribution. Those designs still exist and still work well, particularly in large deep channel letters. However, when used in shallow channel letters or cabinets, the distribution of light often results in non-uniform luminance on the sign face.


可以说,在发光字和灯箱中,对LED模组的性能要求最高的要属光学元件,但是,对于这一点也是有争议的。早期的模组设计没有涉及太多的光学元件,LED的输出通常为120°朗伯,因此,在较薄的发光字或灯箱中,光线的分布往往会导致标识表面亮度的不均匀。


This effect can be minimized by using lower-lumen modules mounted closer together. but while that solution helps with luminance uniformity, it also increases material costs and installation labor.


要想解决标识表面亮度不均匀的问题,可以使用流明较低的模组,这种解决方案有助于提高亮度的均匀性,但同时也增加了材料的成本和安装的劳动力。


Many sign modules today are available with wide-beam optics that spread the light in a “batwing” distribution pattern, named for the cross section shape of the light emanating from the module optics. Wide batwing optics allow for an improvement in luminance uniformity while keeping the LED modules spaced relatively far apart, particularly in shallow depth letters or in cabinets.


在今天,许多LED模组都具光学元件,它们像“蝙蝠翼”一样的分布模式进行光的传播,这是根据光发出的横截面所形成的形状进行命名的,这种模式可以使相距甚远的LED模组,特别是在较薄的发光字或灯箱中,提高亮度和光的均匀性。


Most modules with optics spread the light in a 155° to 170° beam angle. Going beyond 170° doesn’t really make sense as too much light ends up hitting the inside walls of the letter or cabinet, never reaching the sign face.


大多数带有光学元件的模组以155°到170°的光束角度进行光线散布,超过170°就没有什么意义了,因为大多数光只是照射到发光字或灯箱的内壁上,而不会到达标识的表面。


The most recent advances in optical design have improved light distribution even further. Optics have evolved and can now square off a beam pattern when viewed face-on. Due to their quadrant-symmetric light distribution, square lensed sign modules can be placed optimally to achieve uninterrupted illumination.


近来,专业人士对光学元件的设计进行了进一步的改善,最大的改善是在光线的分布上,从而可以在标识表面朝上来产生平行光束,此外,由于它们的象限对称,方形透镜模组可以被自行优化放置,实现不间断的照明效果。


In simple terms, it’s much more efficient to mate together adjacent square pools of light than adjacent round pools of light to achieve uniform illuminance. Square lens pattern designs have improved sign face uniformity even further in small/shallow cabinets and in channel letters ranging from six inches deep down to depths as thin as two inches or even shallower.


简单来说,较于相邻的圆形光池,将相邻的方形光池结合在一起,以达到均匀的照明效果要更好。方形图案的设计,在较小或较薄的灯箱(6英寸深到两英寸甚至更浅的通道字母)中,标识的表面看起来会更加均匀。


Summary


总结


LED sign module technology, performance, and design has evolved over the years since they were first introduced. Improvements in installation design features, LED performance, materials, durability, and optics make LED sign modules more attractive and compelling than ever.


LED模组技术在性能和设计上在不断地跟新换代,与此同时,LED的安装功能、材料、耐用性和光学性能方面的提高,共同使LED模组比以往更具吸引力了。


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